ابداعات و تأثیر آن بر اشتغال: مطالعه موردی کشورهای منتخب سازمان همکاری اسلامی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشیار/ دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

10.22096/esp.2013.26117

چکیده

کاهش بیکاری همواره یکی از مهم‌ترین اهداف نظام‌های اقتصادی و دولت‌ها بوده و تعیین عوامل مؤثر بر بیکاری از اهمیت ویژه‌ای برخوردار است. یکی از این عوامل، ابداعات می‌باشد. در مورد تأثیر ابداعات بر اشتغال عده‌ای اعتقاد دارند که به دلیل افزایش بهره‌وری توسط ابداعات، این متغیر، بیکاری را افزایش می‌دهد. عده‌ای هم با توجه به تأثیری که بخش ابداعات از طریق کانال‌های جبران‌کننده مانند کاهش قیمت محصولات، سرمایه‌گذاری‌های جدید، افزایش درآمد و ارائه محصولات جدید بر اشتغال می‌گذارد، بر نقش مثبت ابداعات بر اشتغال تأکید دارند. در همین راستا هدف این مطالعه بررسی تأثیر بخش ابداعات بر اشتغال کشورهای منتخب عضو سازمان همکاری اسلامی طی دوره 1990- 2009 با استفاده از روش داده‌های تابلویی نامتوازن است. نتایج نشان‌دهندة تأثیر مثبت و معنی‌دار ابداعات بر اشتغال کشورهای مورد مطالعه است. همچنین نتایج نشان‌دهندة تأثیر مثبت و معنی‌دار متغیرهای واردات کالاهای واسطه‌ای و سرمایه‌ای و زیر ساخت‌های اطلاعاتی و ارتباطی بر اشتغال است. تأثیر متغیرهای دستمزد و سرمایه‌گذاری بر اشتغال نیز بی‌معنی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Innovation and Its Effect on Employment: a Case Study of Selected Countries of Organization of the Islamic Conference Countries

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Shahabadi
  • Behzad Amiri
چکیده [English]

Reducing unemployment always has been one of the most important objectives of economic systems and governments and determining factors affecting on unemployment is of particular importance. One of these factors is innovations. Some believe that the impact of innovation on employment due to increased productivity by innovation will increase unemployment rate. Some have emphasized the positive role of innovation on employment. With regard to the effects, the innovation affects through compensating channels such as reducing the price of products, new investments, increase in income and introducing new productions. In this regard, the goals of this paper is to investigate the impact of innovation on employment in selected countries of OIC (Organization of the Islamic Countries) during the period 1990 – 2009 with using unbalanced panel data method. Results showed significant and positive effect of innovation on employment level OIC countries. The results also show the effect of imports, information and communication infrastructure variables on employment are positive and significant.  Also, the effect of investment and wage variables are non-significant on employment level.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Innovation
  • employment
  • Organization of the Islamic Countries
  • the Unbalanced Panel Data Method

الف- فارسی

  1. باصری، بیژن؛ جهانگرد، اسفندیار؛ «نقش فن‌آوری بر اشتغال صنایع کارخانه‌ای ایران»، فصلنامه پژوهش‌های اقتصادی ایران، 1385، شماره 8 (28).
  2. رسولی‌نژاد، احسان؛ نوری، مهدی؛ «اثر فن‌آوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات بر اشتغال ایران»، فصلنامه تحقیقات اقتصادی، 1388، شماره 44 (89).
  3. زاهدی‌وفا، محمدهادی؛ فیروزان سرنقی، توحید؛ «بررسی اثر تجارت خارجی بر اشتغال و دستمزد نیروی کار بخش صنعت در ایران»، پژوهش‌نامه اقتصادی، 1387، شماره 3.
  4. زراءنژاد، منصور؛ منتظرحجت، امیرحسین؛ «عوامل مؤثر بر عرضه نیروی کار زنان در گروه‌های سنی مختلف (مطالعه موردیاستان خوزستان)»، نامه مفید، 1385، شماره 12 (54).
  5. زراءنژاد، منصور؛ نوروزانی، سهراب؛ «تخمین و تحلیل تابع تقاضا برای نیروی کار در صنایع استان خوزستان»، فصلنامه پژوهش‌های اقتصادی ایران، 1384، شماره 7 (25).
  6. شریف‌آزاده، محمدرضا؛ شیری، بهزاد؛ «اثر فن‌آوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات (ICT) بر اشتغال کشور با توجه به ساختاراقتصاد ایران»، نامه مفید، 1387، شماره 14 (69).
  7. کمیجانی، اکبر؛ قویدل، صالح؛ «اثر سرریز سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی در اشتغال ماهر و غیر ماهر بخش خدماتایران»، تحقیقات اقتصادی، 1385، شماره 76.

 

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