عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The importance of human capital as a relatively new concept in the economic status of communities and important functions in conjunction with other forms of capital such as cultural capital, physical capital and financial capital has led to the development of many communities considered and several studies comparing the effects and positive results in different areas to strengthen this capital. This paper reviews and analyzes the effect of social casuality conditions of human capital as one dimention of development. Based on the research theoretical concepts, social capital is a necessary condition for human capital. Approach of paper is comparative–fuzzy and international survey data has been processed using the software SPSS, FS / QCA and Excel. Experimental data showed in 73 percent of the countries, social capital is a necessary condition for human development; Coverage index showed 61 percent of human capital space is covering by social capital; it also was cleared that the degree of membership in social capital set is associated with a degree of membership in a set of human capital; So that, the higher the degree of membership in the set of countries with high social capital, the higher is the degree of membership in countries with high human capital.
10.Arrow, K. J; 1972, "Gifts and Exchanges", Philosophy and Public Affairs, No. 1.
11.Anand, S; Sen, A; 2000, "Human Development and Economic Sustainability", World Development, Vol. 28, No. 12.
12.Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd, de Groot, Henri L. F; van Schaik, Anton B. T. M; 2002, "Trust and Economic Growth", Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper.
13.Dentson, Edward, F; 1962, "The Source of Economic Growth in the United States and the Alternatives Before us", Committee for Economic Development,Supplementary, New York, No. 13.
14.Berman, S; 1997, "Civil Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic", World Politics 49, No. 3.
15.Bolin, K; Lindgren, B; et al; 2002, "Investments in Social Capital - Implications of Social Interactions for the Production of Health", Social Science & Medicine 56, No. 12.
16.Chau, P.Y.K; Cole, M; Massey, A; Montoya-Weiss, M; O’Keefe, R.M; 2002, "Cultural differences in consumer’s online behavior", Communications of the ACM, No. 45(10).
17.Coleman, J. S; 1988, "Social capital in the creation of human-capital" American Journal of Sociology, No. 94.
18.Coleman, J. S; Hoffer, T; 1987, Public and Private Schools. An Analysis of High School and Beyond: A National Longitudinal Study for the 1980's, National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.
19.Desai M; 1991, "Human development: Concepts and Measurement", European Economical Review, No. 35.
20.Despotis, D. K; 2005, "Measuring Human Development via DataEnvelopment Analysis: The Case of Asia and the Pacific", Omega, The International Journal of Management Science, No. 33.
21.Grootaert, C; Swamy, G. O; 2002, "Social Capital, Household Welfare and Poverty in Burkina Faso", Journal of African Economies, No. 11.
22.Kawachi, I; Berkman, L; 2001, "Social ties and mental Health", Journal of urban Health. No. 78.
23.Larsen, L; Harlan, S. L; et al; 2004, "Bonding and Bridging - Understanding the Relationship between Social Capital and Civic Action", Journal of Planning Education and Research, No. 24(1).
24.Lin, N; 2001; Building a Network Theory of Social Capital. In Social Capital,: Theory and Research N. Lin, R. S. Burt and K. S. Cook (eds). New York, Aldine de Gruyter.
25.Marjoribanks, K; Kwok, Y; 1998; "Family Capital and Hong Kong Adolescents Academic Achievement", Psychological Reports, No. 83(1).
26.Meier, A; 1999, Social capital and school achievement among adolescent, University of Wisconsin.
27.Neumayer, E; 2001, "The Human Development Index and Sustainability: AConstructive Proposal", Ecological Economics, No. 39.
28.Noorbakhsh, F; 1998, "A Modified Human Development Index", World Development, Vol. 26, No. 3.
29.Putnam, R. D; 2000, Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community, New York, Simon and Schuster.
30.___________ ; 2007, "E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-First Century the 2006 Johan Skytte Prize Lecture" Scandinavian Political Studies, No. 30(2).
31.Ragin, C; 2000, Fuuzzy-Set Social Science, Chicago, The University Chicago Press.
32._______ ; 2008, Redesigning Social Inquiry Fuzzy Sets and Beyond, The University of Chicago Press.
33._______ ; 2008, User’s Guide to Fuzzy-Set/Qualitative Comparative Analysis, Department of Sociology University of Arizona.
34.Ranis, G; 2004, "Human Development and Economic Growth", Economic Growth Center, Center Discussion Paper, No. 887.
35.Ranis, G; Stewart, F; Ramirez, A; 2000, "Economic Growth and Human Development", World Development, Vol. 28, No. 2.
36.Rihoux, B. and Ragin, C; 2009, Configurational Comparative Methods, Qualitative Comparative Analysis and Related Techniques, London: Sage Publication. Inc.
37.Sampson, R. J; Morenoff, J. D; et al; 1999, "Beyond Social Capital: Spatial Dynamics of Collective Efficacy for Children", American Sociological Review, No. 64(5).
38.Stanton-Salazar, R; Dornbusch, S. M; 1999, "Social Capital and the Reproduction of Inequality: Information Networks among Mexican-Origin High School Students", Sociology of Education, No. 68.
39.Tang, H; 2003, New Arrival Students in Hong Kong: Adaptation and School Performance, Hong Kong, University of Hong Kong.
40.Teachman, J. D; Paasch, K; et al; 1996, "Social Capital and Dropping out of School Early", Journal of Marriage and the Family, No. 58(3).
41.Turner, B; 2003, "Social Capital in equality And Health", social theory and health, Vol. 1, No. 1.
42.UNDP, Human Development Report (2006).
43.Zhou, M; Bankston, C; 1998, Growing up American: The Adaptation of Vietnamese Children to American Society, New York, Russell Sage Foundation Press.