تعیین‌کننده‌های شدت تحقیق و توسعه بنگاه‌های اقتصادی: رویکرد پانل دیتا -روش 2SLS

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار/ دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

2 دانشکده اقتصاد و علوم اجتماعی همدان

10.22096/esp.2017.25908

چکیده

تحقیق و توسعه به عنوان یکی از نهاد‌های نوآوری می‌تواند بهره‌وری بنگاه‌ها را به واسطه بهبود کیفیت محصول یا کاهش هزینه‌های متوسط تولید، افزایش دهد و بر سودآوری بنگاه اثر مثبت بگذارد. رمز موفقیت اقتصاد یک کشور این است که بنگاه‌های تولیدی آن نوآور باشند و کالاهایی تولید نمایند که قدرت رقابت با کالاهای مشابه خارجی را دارا باشند. لذا برای دستیابی به هدف از پژوهش اینکه چه عواملی سرمایه‌گذاری در R&D بنگاه‌ها (BERD) را تعیین می‌کنند؟ برای این منظور دو دسته کشورهای در حال توسعه و توسعه‌یافته طی دوره 1995-2012 انتخاب شده‌اند که به بررسی عوامل تعیین‌کننده BERD آن‌ها بر اساس رویکرد پانل دیتا با بهره‌گیری از روش 2SLS (حداقل مربعات دو مرحله‌ای) پرداخته شده است. در این مطالعه به درونزایی حمایت از حقوق مالکیت فکری (IPR) توجه گردیده است. نتایج برآورد بیانگر اثر مثبت و معنادار حمایت از حقوق مالکیت فکری و شدت R&D دانشگاه‌ها بر شدت BERD است. متغیر دسترسی به وجوه داخلی که با نسبت پس‌انداز داخلی به GDP با یک دوره وقفه اندازه‌گیری شده است نیز، اثر مثبت بر شدت BERD دارد ولی تنها برای کشورهای توسعه‌یافته معنادار است. همچنین متغیر صادرات با فن‌آوری برتر دارای تأثیر مثبت و معنادار برای هر دو گروه کشورهای مورد مطالعه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determinants of Firms R&D Intensity: Panel Data Approach (2SLS Method)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Shahabadi 1
  • Arash Hidari 2
چکیده [English]

Research and development (R&D) as one of the inputs of innovation can increase firm's productivity through improving product quality or reducing average cost of production, and can have a positive effect on firm's profitability. So, the country's economic success, is that manufacturing firms that are innovative and produce goods that have the power to compete with similar foreign goods. Therefore, the aim of this study is to answer the question of what factors determine the firm's investment in research and development. For this purpose, both developed and developing countries have been selected to investigate determinants of their business enterprise research and development (BERD based on panel data approach using the 2SLS (two-stage least squares) method during the period 1995-2012. In this study, endogeneity of intellectual property rights are considered. Estimation results indicate a positive and significant effect of intellectual property rights, and university R&D intensity on business enterprise research and development (BERD) intensity. Access to internal funds variable has positive effect that is measured with domestic savings to GDP ratio with one period lag, which is significant only in developed countries. Also, the exports of high-tech variable has positive effect and significant for both groups of countries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • R&D
  • Innovation
  • Firm
  • Developing and Developed Countries

الف- فارسی
1. شاه‌آبادی، ابوالفضل؛ حیدری، آرش؛ «بررسی عوامل تعیین‌کننده شدت تحقیق و توسعه در کشورهای منتخب توسعه‌یافته و درحال توسعه: رهیافت پانل دیتا»، فصلنامه سیاست علم و فن‌آوری، 1390، شماره1. ##
2. __________________ ؛ «بررسی عوامل تعیین‌کننده اقتصاد دانش‌بنیان: روش‌شناسی «KAM، صنعت و توسعه فن‌آوری، 1390، شماره 1. ##
3. شاه‌آبادی، ابوالفضل؛ سلیمی، صبا؛ «تأثیر حکمرانی خوب بر شدت تحقیق و توسعه کشورهای منتخب توسعه یافته و درحال توسعه»، فصلنامه سیاست علم و فن‌آوری، 1394، شماره 2. ##
ب- لاتین


4. Acworth, E. B; 2008, "University–industry engagement: The formation of the knowledge integration community (KIC) model at the Cambridge-MIT Institute", Research Policy, No. 37(8). ##
5. Aghion, Ph. and Howitt, P; 1992, "A model of growth through creative destruction", Econometrica, Econometric Society, No. 60(2). ##
6. Baltagi, B. H; 2005, Econometric analysis of panel data, Third Edition, John Wiley & Sons, England. ##
7. Bassanini, A. and Ernst, E; 2002, Labour market regulation, industrial relations and technological change: A tale of comparative advantage, Industrial and Corporate Change, No. 11(3). ##
8. Bebczuk, R. N; 2002, R&D expenditures and the role of government, Estudios de Economı´a, No. 29(1). ##
9. Dakhli. M. and De Clercq, D; 2004, "Human capital, social capital and innovation: A multi country study", Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, No. 16(2). ##
10. Eom, B. Y. and Lee, K; 2010, "Determinants of industry–academy linkages and, their impact on firm performance: The case of Korea as a latecomer in knowledge industrialization", Research Policy, No. 39(5). ##
11. Falk, M; 2006, "What drives business research and development (R&D) intensity across organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD) countries?", Applied Economics, No. 38(5). ##
12. Freeman, C; 2002, Continental national and sub-national innovation systems complimentarily and economic growth, Research Policy, No. 31. ##
13. Ginarte, J. C. and Park, W. G; 1997, "Determinants of patent rights: A cross-national study, Research Policy", No. 26(3). ##
14. Guellec, D. and Van Pottelsberghe, B; 2003, The impact of public R&D expenditure on business R&D, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, No. 12(3). ##
15. Gwartney, J., Lawson, R., Hall, J., Chauffour, J. P. and Stroup, M. D; 2011, Economic freedom of the world, Annual Report, Fraser Institute. ##
16. Hall, B; 1992, "Investment and R&D at the firm level: does the source of financing matter?", National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, Working paper, No. 4096. ##
17. Hall, B. H., Mairesse, J. and Mohnen, P; 2009a, "Measuring the returns to R&D", Cambridge, Mass, NBER Working Paper, No. 15622. ##
18. Hall, B. H., Lotti, F. and Mairesse, J; 2009b, "Innovation and productivity in SMEs: Empirical evidence for Italy", Small Business Economics, No. 33(1). ##
19. Helpman, E; 1993, "Innovation, imitation, and intellectual property rights", Econometrical, No. 61(6). ##
20. Himmelberg, C. and Petersen, B; 1994, "R&D and internal finance: a panel study of small firms in high-tech industries", Review of Economics and Statistics, No. 76(1). ##
21. Jaumotte, F & Pain, N; 2005, "From Ideas to Development: The Determinants of R&D and Patenting. OECD Economics Department Working Papers", No. 457.OECD Publishing (NJ1). ##
22. Kalande, Ch. M; 2002, "Intellectual property, foreign direct investment and the least–developed countries", Journal of World Intellectual Property, No. 5(1). ##
23. Kanwar, S. and Evenson, R; 2003, "Does intellectual property protection spur technological change?", Oxford Economic Papers, No. 55(2). ##
24. Kanwar, S; 2007, "Business enterprise R&D, technological change, and intellectual property protection", Economics Letters, No. 96(1). ##
25. Leger, A; 2006, "Intellectual property rights and innovation in developing countries: Evidence from panel data", Proceeding of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin, No. 17. ##
26. Lerner, J; 2002, "150 years of patent protection", American Economic Review, No. 92(2). ##
27. Lundvall, B. A; 1992, "National systems of innovation: towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning", Printer Publishers, London. ##
28. Ozcelik, E. and Taymaz, E; 2008, "R&D support programs in developing countries: The Turkish experience", Research Policy, No. 37(2). ##
29. Park, W. G; 2008, "International patent protection: 1960-2005", Research Policy, No. 37(4). ##
30. Ping, L. and Qingchang, Zh; 2008, "The effects of technological spillover through FDI and import trade on China’s innovation", School of Economy of Shandong University of Technology, www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail ##
31. Ravindran, S. R; 2004, "Knowledge based economy: Role of IPR. CEO –Altacit Global", [Strategic Consultants for Intellectual Property]. ##
32. Reinthaler, V. and Wollf, G. B; 2004, "The effectiveness of subsidies revisited accounting for wage and employment effects in business R&D", ZEI Working Papers, No. B21. ##
33. Romer, P; 1986, "Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth", Journal of Political Economy, No. 94(5). ##
34. Romer, P; 1990, "Endogenous technological change", Journal of Political Economy, No. 98(5). ##
35. Santiago, P., Tremblay, K., Basri, E. and Arnal, E; 2008, "Tertiary education for the knowledge society", OECD, No. 2(10). ##
36. Schneider, P.H; 2005, "International trade economic growth and intellectual property rights: A panel data study of developed and developing countries", Journal of Development Economics, No. 78(2). ##
37. SSAC; 2006, Patterns in business R&D, A Series of Working Papers Prepared for the Scottish Science Advisory Committee in support of its study. ##
38. Stern, S; Porter, M. E. and Furman, J. L; 2000, "The determinants of national innovative capacity", NBER Working Paper, No. 7876. ##
39. Tebaldi, E. and Elmslie, B; 2013, "Does institutional quality impact innovation?", Evidence from cross-country patent grant data, Applied Economics, No. 45(7). ##
40. Turkcan, B. and Aysen Kaya, A; 2011, Internationalization of research and development activities case of European countries and Turkey. http://www.iibf.ege.edu.tr/economics/papers/wp11-01.pdf ##
41. Wang, E. C; 2010, "Determinants of R&D unvestment: The extreme-bounds-analysis approach applied to 26 OECD countries", Research Policy, No. 39(1). ##
42. Wooldridge, J. M; 2002, Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data, 1st Edition, The MIT Press. ##